contemporary antibiotics – classification, principle bastianutti include an intensive institution of medicinal pills that display activity to bacteria, inhibit the boom and development or damage them. this is one of the most crucial agencies of medicine, which today is very actual. thanks to them, maximum infectious diseases due to such pathogens may be handled.
The first actual substance that destroys micro-organisms turned into penicillin. It become opened in 1922 by using the English microbiologist A. Fleming. these days there are more than 100 one-of-a-kind representatives of this pharmacological group of medicinal approach. contemporary antibiotics are divided into kinds primarily based on several criteria – the nature of the effect on microorganisms and antimicrobial spectrum, the course of motion, chemical shape and technique of receipt.
Penicillin is a natural antibiotic, that is a means of war for lifestyles of fungi and actinomycetes. through the availability of penicillin, they inhibit the increase and duplicate of bacteria than provide their personal superiority with regards to the nutritional environment.
sorts according to the nature of the impact
the nature of the effect on bacterial cells secrete 2 forms of media, which include:
tablets bacteriostatic motion – inhibit the growth, improvement and replica of microorganisms. Their utility stops the infectious method within the frame, that permits the immune machine to spoil bacterial cells (chloramphenicol).
tablets of bactericidal movement – wreck the bacterial mobile, thereby decreasing their number inside the body (cephalosporins, amoxicillin).
a few micro organism, after their dying and the destruction of the cellular wall, secrete into the blood huge amounts of poisonous materials (endotoxins). In this case, shows the usage of bacteriostatic tablets.
The spectrum of motion
The movement spectrum shows the variety of different styles of micro organism towards which the drug is energetic. This criterion entails the subsequent agencies of antibiotics:
broad spectrum – energetic towards most microorganisms, pathogens of human infectious sicknesses (cephalosporins, amoxicillin included with clavulanic acid).
slender spectrum antibiotics – inhibit or destroy only some species of microorganisms (anti-TB method).
within the case of most illnesses, pills used vast-spectrum Septra ds. If essential, the Definition of sensitivity to antibioticantibiotics laboratory dedication of sensitivity to antibiotics – it's far bacteriological isolation of bacteria from the patient with their next cultivation on a nutrient medium with the drug. the shortage of boom of colonies indicates the sensitivity to the micro organism.
in the direction of action
This category gives a division into species consistent with their most important activity in opposition to specific groups of microorganisms:
Antibacterial sellers – the real antibiotics used to treat most infectious illnesses.
Antineoplastic sellers – materials derived from a mold, have the capability to have an effect on the path of the most cancers technique with the aid of inhibiting the multiplication of most cancers cells.
Antifungal – destroying fungal cells.
in terms of antifungal agents, there is an ongoing dialogue whether to encompass them in one row with antibiotics.
The approach of obtaining
Getting antibiotics nowadays has several variations. therefore it is easy to distinguish the following corporations:
natural – extracted immediately from moulds.
Semi-synthetic is also isolated from the mold, however to beautify the hobby and spectrum of motion, is the chemical amendment of molecules of natural materials.
synthetic – a molecule produced only by using chemical way.
The styles of chemical structure
The chemical shape determines the nature, variety and path of the results of antibacterial capsules. The chemical shape there are the following kinds:
Beta-lactams – molecule includes a lactams ring. This shape is normal shit of such a lot of exceptional representatives of this institution – penicillins and their analogues, cephalosporins, carbapenems. all of them have a bactericidal effect and a extensive spectrum.
Macrolides – molecule complex has a cyclic structure, it's far quite powerful drug treatments which are effective towards bacteria, intracellular parasites (chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma).
Tetracycline is pretty poisonous capsules which have a bacteriostatic effect, therefore used to treat infections caused by bacteria that produce endotoxins (brucellosis, Receipt of antibiotics, vancomycin is the synthetic proizvoditelyami, anthrax).
Levomicetina is also pretty poisonous pills with bacteriostatic effect. they may be lively towards pathogens of intestinal infections and meningitis.
Aminoglycosides, a fantastically poisonous antibacterial tablets, their use these days is more restricted, getting used most effective in very severe infectious system (sepsis – blood infection).
The glycopeptides – a current antibacterial tablets, that have a reported hobby towards maximum pathogens of bacterial infections (vancomycin).
TB gear – hepatotoxic medicine (harm to liver cells), which can be energetic only in opposition to tubercle bacilli (TB).
today, those principal groups of medicine are used to deal with diverse infectious sicknesses. To prevent the improvement of chronicity of the method and resistance of micro organism, it is very critical to apply them according to the guidelines of rational antibiotic remedy.